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Where there is a strong desire not to implement this simple function in its own. The PGE header is isolated into its own bridge called pge-bridge. Finally, for projects which utilize include as a code sharing mechanism, I like to employ the idea that each header file should stand completely on its own, meaning that if a header uses something like std::vector it cannot rely on that container being introduced through some other header, it must include it itself.

This is good practice; it makes maintaining headers minimal as you move them around and use them in more places. By default, MSBuild will key off any source files with a. Now, how do we get there? It is common for mature projects to have a similar structure and breakdown of components and it makes sense for maintainability reasons.

Let us do exactly that by introducing some new files into the directory tree which reflects our header file layout making them empty for now :. When tackling a project of any size you want to start as small as you possibly can. The first thing you need to do is add the content to your module interface:. There is one last thing missing: we did not actually export anything! Take a look:. Finally, we add this new interface to the CMakeLists.

Things should run the same as before except that we are one step closer to modularizing the project! Named modules are all about defining the surface area of your API. Now that we have a tool which allows us to hide implementation details that would otherwise be unnecessary for consumers, we can start to think about what the accessible parts of the API should be. In this file we have the following declarations:. As such we can define the module like so:.

Notice that we do not even need to export the declaration of the class RandomNumberGenerator. Do not be afraid to put compiled code in an interface, it is its own translation unit and obeys the rules of compiled code. When we move code into a modules world, and in particular 3rd party code, we need to take some things into consideration: what part of the library do we want to expose? What runtime requirements are in the library if it is header only? With modules we start to have answers to these questions based on the requirements of our project.

Integrating 3rd party library functionality into modularized projects is one of the most interesting parts of using modules because modules give us tools we never had before to deal with ODR One Definition Rule and name resolution. It is easy to integrate into projects because it is a single header file and the interfaces are simple—which plays to our advantage in deciding what parts of the library we want to expose.

You will immediately notice that the color constants are mysteriously missing. This is because these constants are defined with static linkage in the header file so we cannot export them directly and the reason is buried in standardese. It is simpler to remember that you cannot export an internal linkage entity i. The way to get around this is wrap them in a function which has module linkage:. Once we have these functions, we need to replace any instance of olc::COLOR with its respective call to our exported color function.

And that is it! Just as before, you add this to the CMakeLists. Once you have gone through the exercise of modularizing more and more of the project you might find that your main program begins to reflect the header file version:. To understand what I am talking about let us look at a header file equivalent of grouping common functionality. The problem, of course, is while this is convenient and you do not need to think about which specific file to include for your current project, you end up paying the cost of every header file in the package regardless of if you use it or not.

We can also do the same for anything under Util. This leads us to a rather, I think, respectable looking ball-pit. It was a little bit of a journey getting here, and there are learnings along the way. You can check out the code, configure, and build it the same as we covered earlier using Visual Studio version With modules there is an up-front cost in building our interfaces.

With the old inclusion model, we did not have to build our include files explicitly only implicitly.

We end up building more up front, but the result is that we can REPL our main program and its components much, much faster. Here is a snapshot of the difference:. Note: these times were an average of 10 runs. You can see the results yourself by observing the c1xx. The process of using named modules in complex projects can be time consuming, but this type of refactor pays off in both reducing development costs associated with recompiling and code hygiene.

Named modules give us so much more than simply better compile times and in the above we have only scratched the surface of what is possible. Stay tuned for more modules educational content from us in the future! As always, we welcome your feedback. Feel free to send any comments through e-mail at visualcpp microsoft. Also, feel free to follow me on Twitter starfreakclone. For suggestions or bug reports, let us know through DevComm. Comments are closed. Glad to see another one of these modules post, converting a larger scenario with open source dependencies.

If a large enough program uses this library, and one of its dependencies imports this library while another dependency includes it, will we properly get one instantiation of SomeSymbol code?

Is that you are having the module interface take ownership over that class and as a result the module will own definitions within that class. It is one of the reasons why you might see linker errors by doing this and why we recommend the using-declaration approach. Yes, this is expected because the using-declaration always expects a qualified name. If you want the sample to work you will need to do the following:.

Builds fine now — TY. What version of Visual Studio are you using? The growth in the number of computer systems and the increasing reliance upon them by individuals, businesses, industries, and governments means that there are an increasing number of systems at risk. The computer systems of financial regulators and financial institutions like the U.

Securities and Exchange Commission , SWIFT, investment banks, and commercial banks are prominent hacking targets for cybercriminals interested in manipulating markets and making illicit gains. Computers control functions at many utilities, including coordination of telecommunications , the power grid , nuclear power plants , and valve opening and closing in water and gas networks.

The Internet is a potential attack vector for such machines if connected, but the Stuxnet worm demonstrated that even equipment controlled by computers not connected to the Internet can be vulnerable. In , the Computer Emergency Readiness Team , a division of the Department of Homeland Security , investigated 79 hacking incidents at energy companies. The aviation industry is very reliant on a series of complex systems which could be attacked. The consequences of a successful attack range from loss of confidentiality to loss of system integrity, air traffic control outages, loss of aircraft, and even loss of life.

Desktop computers and laptops are commonly targeted to gather passwords or financial account information, or to construct a botnet to attack another target. Smartphones , tablet computers , smart watches , and other mobile devices such as quantified self devices like activity trackers have sensors such as cameras, microphones, GPS receivers, compasses, and accelerometers which could be exploited, and may collect personal information, including sensitive health information.

WiFi, Bluetooth, and cell phone networks on any of these devices could be used as attack vectors, and sensors might be remotely activated after a successful breach. The increasing number of home automation devices such as the Nest thermostat are also potential targets. Large corporations are common targets. In many cases attacks are aimed at financial gain through identity theft and involve data breaches.

Examples include the loss of millions of clients’ credit card details by Home Depot , [47] Staples , [48] Target Corporation , [49] and the most recent breach of Equifax. Medical records have been targeted in general identify theft, health insurance fraud, and impersonating patients to obtain prescription drugs for recreational purposes or resale. Not all attacks are financially motivated, however: security firm HBGary Federal suffered a serious series of attacks in from hacktivist group Anonymous in retaliation for the firm’s CEO claiming to have infiltrated their group, [53] [54] and Sony Pictures was hacked in with the apparent dual motive of embarrassing the company through data leaks and crippling the company by wiping workstations and servers.

Vehicles are increasingly computerized, with engine timing, cruise control , anti-lock brakes , seat belt tensioners, door locks, airbags and advanced driver-assistance systems on many models. Additionally, connected cars may use WiFi and Bluetooth to communicate with onboard consumer devices and the cell phone network.

All of these systems carry some security risk, and such issues have gained wide attention. Simple examples of risk include a malicious compact disc being used as an attack vector, [61] and the car’s onboard microphones being used for eavesdropping. However, if access is gained to a car’s internal controller area network , the danger is much greater [57] — and in a widely publicized test, hackers remotely carjacked a vehicle from 10 miles away and drove it into a ditch.

Manufacturers are reacting in numerous ways, with Tesla in pushing out some security fixes “over the air” into its cars’ computer systems. Government and military computer systems are commonly attacked by activists [67] [68] [69] and foreign powers. The Internet of things IoT is the network of physical objects such as devices, vehicles, and buildings that are embedded with electronics , software , sensors , and network connectivity that enables them to collect and exchange data.

While the IoT creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, [78] [79] it also provides opportunities for misuse. In particular, as the Internet of Things spreads widely, cyberattacks are likely to become an increasingly physical rather than simply virtual threat. People could stand to lose much more than their credit card numbers in a world controlled by IoT-enabled devices.

Thieves have also used electronic means to circumvent non-Internet-connected hotel door locks. As IoT devices and appliances gain currency, cyber-kinetic attacks can become pervasive and significantly damaging. Medical devices have either been successfully attacked or had potentially deadly vulnerabilities demonstrated, including both in-hospital diagnostic equipment [82] and implanted devices including pacemakers [83] and insulin pumps.

In distributed generation systems, the risk of a cyber attack is real, according to Daily Energy Insider. An attack could cause a loss of power in a large area for a long period of time, and such an attack could have just as severe consequences as a natural disaster.

The District of Columbia is considering creating a Distributed Energy Resources DER Authority within the city, with the goal being for customers to have more insight into their own energy use and giving the local electric utility, Pepco , the chance to better estimate energy demand. The D. Serious financial damage has been caused by security breaches , but because there is no standard model for estimating the cost of an incident, the only data available is that which is made public by the organizations involved.

The reliability of these estimates is often challenged; the underlying methodology is basically anecdotal. However, reasonable estimates of the financial cost of security breaches can actually help organizations make rational investment decisions. According to the classic Gordon-Loeb Model analyzing the optimal investment level in information security, one can conclude that the amount a firm spends to protect information should generally be only a small fraction of the expected loss i.

As with physical security , the motivations for breaches of computer security vary between attackers. Some are thrill-seekers or vandals , some are activists, others are criminals looking for financial gain. Additionally, recent attacker motivations can be traced back to extremist organizations seeking to gain political advantage or disrupt social agendas.

All critical targeted environments are susceptible to compromise and this has led to a series of proactive studies on how to migrate the risk by taking into consideration motivations by these types of actors. Several stark differences exist between the hacker motivation and that of nation state actors seeking to attack based on an ideological preference. A standard part of threat modeling for any particular system is to identify what might motivate an attack on that system, and who might be motivated to breach it.

The level and detail of precautions will vary depending on the system to be secured. A home personal computer , bank , and classified military network face very different threats, even when the underlying technologies in use are similar.

In computer security, a countermeasure is an action, device, procedure or technique that reduces a threat, a vulnerability, or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken.

Security by design, or alternately secure by design, means that the software has been designed from the ground up to be secure. In this case, security is considered as a main feature. The Open Security Architecture organization defines IT security architecture as “the design artifacts that describe how the security controls security countermeasures are positioned, and how they relate to the overall information technology architecture.

These controls serve the purpose to maintain the system’s quality attributes: confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability and assurance services “. Techopedia defines security architecture as “a unified security design that addresses the necessities and potential risks involved in a certain scenario or environment. It also specifies when and where to apply security controls. The design process is generally reproducible. Practicing security architecture provides the right foundation to systematically address business, IT and security concerns in an organization.

A state of computer “security” is the conceptual ideal, attained by the use of the three processes: threat prevention, detection, and response. These processes are based on various policies and system components, which include the following:. Today, computer security consists mainly of “preventive” measures, like firewalls or an exit procedure.

A firewall can be defined as a way of filtering network data between a host or a network and another network, such as the Internet , and can be implemented as software running on the machine, hooking into the network stack or, in the case of most UNIX -based operating systems such as Linux , built into the operating system kernel to provide real-time filtering and blocking. Another implementation is a so-called “physical firewall”, which consists of a separate machine filtering network traffic.

Firewalls are common amongst machines that are permanently connected to the Internet. Some organizations are turning to big data platforms, such as Apache Hadoop , to extend data accessibility and machine learning to detect advanced persistent threats.

However, relatively few organizations maintain computer systems with effective detection systems, and fewer still have organized response mechanisms in place. As a result, as Reuters points out: “Companies for the first time report they are losing more through electronic theft of data than physical stealing of assets”. Yet it is basic evidence gathering by using packet capture appliances that puts criminals behind bars.

In order to ensure adequate security, the confidentiality, integrity and availability of a network, better known as the CIA triad, must be protected and is considered the foundation to information security.

The amount of security afforded to an asset can only be determined when its value is known. Vulnerability management is the cycle of identifying, remediating or mitigating vulnerabilities , [] especially in software and firmware. Vulnerability management is integral to computer security and network security. Vulnerabilities can be discovered with a vulnerability scanner , which analyzes a computer system in search of known vulnerabilities, [] such as open ports , insecure software configuration, and susceptibility to malware.

In order for these tools to be effective, they must be kept up to date with every new update the vendor release. Typically, these updates will scan for the new vulnerabilities that were introduced recently. Beyond vulnerability scanning, many organizations contract outside security auditors to run regular penetration tests against their systems to identify vulnerabilities. In some sectors, this is a contractual requirement. While formal verification of the correctness of computer systems is possible, [] [] it is not yet common.

Two factor authentication is a method for mitigating unauthorized access to a system or sensitive information. It requires “something you know”; a password or PIN, and “something you have”; a card, dongle, cellphone, or another piece of hardware.

This increases security as an unauthorized person needs both of these to gain access. Social engineering and direct computer access physical attacks can only be prevented by non-computer means, which can be difficult to enforce, relative to the sensitivity of the information. Training is often involved to help mitigate this risk, but even in highly disciplined environments e.

Inoculation, derived from inoculation theory , seeks to prevent social engineering and other fraudulent tricks or traps by instilling a resistance to persuasion attempts through exposure to similar or related attempts. While hardware may be a source of insecurity, such as with microchip vulnerabilities maliciously introduced during the manufacturing process, [] [] hardware-based or assisted computer security also offers an alternative to software-only computer security.

Using devices and methods such as dongles , trusted platform modules , intrusion-aware cases, drive locks, disabling USB ports, and mobile-enabled access may be considered more secure due to the physical access or sophisticated backdoor access required in order to be compromised. Each of these is covered in more detail below. One use of the term “computer security” refers to technology that is used to implement secure operating systems.

Many common operating systems meet the EAL4 standard of being “Methodically Designed, Tested and Reviewed”, but the formal verification required for the highest levels means that they are uncommon. In software engineering, secure coding aims to guard against the accidental introduction of security vulnerabilities.

It is also possible to create software designed from the ground up to be secure. Such systems are secure by design. Beyond this, formal verification aims to prove the correctness of the algorithms underlying a system; [] important for cryptographic protocols for example. Within computer systems, two of the main security models capable of enforcing privilege separation are access control lists ACLs and role-based access control RBAC.

An access-control list ACL , with respect to a computer file system, is a list of permissions associated with an object. An ACL specifies which users or system processes are granted access to objects, as well as what operations are allowed on given objects. Role-based access control is an approach to restricting system access to authorized users, [] [] [] used by the majority of enterprises with more than employees, [] and can implement mandatory access control MAC or discretionary access control DAC.

A further approach, capability-based security has been mostly restricted to research operating systems. Capabilities can, however, also be implemented at the language level, leading to a style of programming that is essentially a refinement of standard object-oriented design.

An open-source project in the area is the E language. This is a gift to attackers who have obtained access to a machine by some means. The risk may be mitigated by the use of two-factor authentication. As the human component of cyber risk is particularly relevant in determining the global cyber risk [] an organization is facing, security awareness training, at all levels, not only provides formal compliance with regulatory and industry mandates but is considered essential [] in reducing cyber risk and protecting individuals and companies from the great majority of cyber threats.

The focus on the end-user represents a profound cultural change for many security practitioners, who have traditionally approached cybersecurity exclusively from a technical perspective, and moves along the lines suggested by major security centers [] to develop a culture of cyber awareness within the organization, recognizing that a security-aware user provides an important line of defense against cyber attacks.

Related to end-user training, digital hygiene or cyber hygiene is a fundamental principle relating to information security and, as the analogy with personal hygiene shows, is the equivalent of establishing simple routine measures to minimize the risks from cyber threats. The assumption is that good cyber hygiene practices can give networked users another layer of protection, reducing the risk that one vulnerable node will be used to either mount attacks or compromise another node or network, especially from common cyberattacks.

As opposed to a purely technology-based defense against threats, cyber hygiene mostly regards routine measures that are technically simple to implement and mostly dependent on discipline [] or education.

As such, these measures can be performed by laypeople, not just security experts. Cyber hygiene relates to personal hygiene as computer viruses relate to biological viruses or pathogens. However, while the term computer virus was coined almost simultaneously with the creation of the first working computer viruses, [] the term cyber hygiene is a much later invention, perhaps as late as [] by Internet pioneer Vint Cerf.

Responding to attempted security breaches is often very difficult for a variety of reasons, including:. Where an attack succeeds and a breach occurs, many jurisdictions now have in place mandatory security breach notification laws. Incident response is an organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a computer security incident or compromise with the goal of preventing a breach or thwarting a cyberattack.

An incident that is not identified and managed at the time of intrusion typically escalates to a more damaging event such as a data breach or system failure. The intended outcome of a computer security incident response plan is to contain the incident, limit damage and assist recovery to business as usual. Responding to compromises quickly can mitigate exploited vulnerabilities, restore services and processes and minimize losses.

Typical incident response plans contain a set of written instructions that outline the organization’s response to a cyberattack. Without a documented plan in place, an organization may not successfully detect an intrusion or compromise and stakeholders may not understand their roles, processes and procedures during an escalation, slowing the organization’s response and resolution. In , 60, computers were connected to the Internet, and most were mainframes, minicomputers and professional workstations.

On 2 November , many started to slow down, because they were running a malicious code that demanded processor time and that spread itself to other computers — the first internet ” computer worm “.

In , over a hundred intrusions were made by unidentified crackers into the Rome Laboratory , the US Air Force’s main command and research facility. Using trojan horses , hackers were able to obtain unrestricted access to Rome’s networking systems and remove traces of their activities.

The intruders were able to obtain classified files, such as air tasking order systems data and furthermore able to penetrate connected networks of National Aeronautics and Space Administration ‘s Goddard Space Flight Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, some Defense contractors, and other private sector organizations, by posing as a trusted Rome center user. In early , American apparel and home goods company TJX announced that it was the victim of an unauthorized computer systems intrusion [] and that the hackers had accessed a system that stored data on credit card , debit card , check , and merchandise return transactions.

In , the computer worm known as Stuxnet reportedly ruined almost one-fifth of Iran’s nuclear centrifuges. This is generally believed to have been launched by Israel and the United States to disrupt Iran’s nuclear program [] [] [] [] — although neither has publicly admitted this. A Ukrainian hacker known as Rescator broke into Target Corporation computers in , stealing roughly 40 million credit cards, [] and then Home Depot computers in , stealing between 53 and 56 million credit card numbers.

The size of the thefts has resulted in major attention from state and Federal United States authorities and the investigation is ongoing. In April , the Office of Personnel Management discovered it had been hacked more than a year earlier in a data breach, resulting in the theft of approximately The group claimed that they had taken not only company data but user data as well.

After the breach, The Impact Team dumped emails from the company’s CEO, to prove their point, and threatened to dump customer data unless the website was taken down permanently. In June , the cyber attack took down the largest fuel pipeline in the U.

International legal issues of cyber attacks are complicated in nature. There is no global base of common rules to judge, and eventually punish, cybercrimes and cybercriminals – and where security firms or agencies do locate the cybercriminal behind the creation of a particular piece of malware or form of cyber attack , often the local authorities cannot take action due to lack of laws under which to prosecute. So the Internet is as if someone [had] given free plane tickets to all the online criminals of the world.

The role of the government is to make regulations to force companies and organizations to protect their systems, infrastructure and information from any cyberattacks, but also to protect its own national infrastructure such as the national power-grid. The government’s regulatory role in cyberspace is complicated. For some, cyberspace was seen as a virtual space that was to remain free of government intervention, as can be seen in many of today’s libertarian blockchain and bitcoin discussions.

Many government officials and experts think that the government should do more and that there is a crucial need for improved regulation, mainly due to the failure of the private sector to solve efficiently the cybersecurity problem. Clarke said during a panel discussion at the RSA Security Conference in San Francisco , he believes that the “industry only responds when you threaten regulation.

If the industry doesn’t respond to the threat , you have to follow through. Daniel R. McCarthy analyzed this public-private partnership in cybersecurity and reflected on the role of cybersecurity in the broader constitution of political order.

On 22 May , the UN Security Council held its second ever informal meeting on cybersecurity to focus on cyber challenges to international peace. GDPR requires that business processes that handle personal data be built with data protection by design and by default.

Since , Canada has had a cybersecurity strategy. Public Safety Canada aims to begin an evaluation of Canada’s cybersecurity strategy in early The LSG was created to overcome the incoherent policies and overlapping responsibilities that characterized China’s former cyberspace decision-making mechanisms.

The LSG oversees policy-making in the economic, political, cultural, social and military fields as they relate to network security and IT strategy. This LSG also coordinates major policy initiatives in the international arena that promote norms and standards favored by the Chinese government and that emphasizes the principle of national sovereignty in cyberspace. According to the Minister, the primary task of the new organization founded on 23 February , is to detect and prevent attacks against the national infrastructure and mentioned incidents like Stuxnet.

Some provisions for cybersecurity have been incorporated into rules framed under the Information Technology Act The National Cyber Security Policy is a policy framework by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology MeitY which aims to protect the public and private infrastructure from cyberattacks, and safeguard “information, such as personal information of web users , financial and banking information and sovereign data”.

CERT- In is the nodal agency which monitors the cyber threats in the country. The Indian Companies Act has also introduced cyber law and cybersecurity obligations on the part of Indian directors.

Some provisions for cybersecurity have been incorporated into rules framed under the Information Technology Act Update in Following cyberattacks in the first half of , when the government, news media, television stations, and bank websites were compromised, the national government committed to the training of 5, new cybersecurity experts by The South Korean government blamed its northern counterpart for these attacks, as well as incidents that occurred in , , [] and , but Pyongyang denies the accusations.

The 18 U. It prohibits unauthorized access or damage of “protected computers” as defined in 18 U. Although various other measures have been proposed [] [] — none has succeeded. In response to the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack [] President Joe Biden signed Executive Order [] on May 12, , to increase software security standards for sales to the government, tighten detection and security on existing systems, improve information sharing and training, establish a Cyber Safety Review Board, and improve incident response.

The Department of Homeland Security has a dedicated division responsible for the response system, risk management program and requirements for cybersecurity in the United States called the National Cyber Security Division. In addition to its own specific duties, the FBI participates alongside non-profit organizations such as InfraGard. The CCIPS is in charge of investigating computer crime and intellectual property crime and is specialized in the search and seizure of digital evidence in computers and networks.

The U. Federal Communications Commission ‘s role in cybersecurity is to strengthen the protection of critical communications infrastructure, to assist in maintaining the reliability of networks during disasters, to aid in swift recovery after, and to ensure that first responders have access to effective communications services.

The Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance for medical devices, [] and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [] is concerned with automotive cybersecurity.

After being criticized by the Government Accountability Office , [] and following successful attacks on airports and claimed attacks on airplanes, the Federal Aviation Administration has devoted funding to securing systems on board the planes of private manufacturers, and the Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System. In the US, two distinct organizations exist, although they do work closely together.

There is growing concern that cyberspace will become the next theater of warfare. In the future, wars will not just be fought by soldiers with guns or with planes that drop bombs. They will also be fought with the click of a mouse a half a world away that unleashes carefully weaponized computer programs that disrupt or destroy critical industries like utilities, transportation, communications, and energy. Such attacks could also disable military networks that control the movement of troops, the path of jet fighters, the command and control of warships.

This has led to new terms such as cyberwarfare and cyberterrorism. The United States Cyber Command was created in [] and many other countries have similar forces. There are a few critical voices that question whether cybersecurity is as significant a threat as it is made out to be.

Cybersecurity is a fast-growing field of IT concerned with reducing organizations’ risk of hack or data breaches. The fastest increases in demand for cybersecurity workers are in industries managing increasing volumes of consumer data such as finance, health care, and retail.

Typical cybersecurity job titles and descriptions include: []. Student programs are also available for people interested in beginning a career in cybersecurity.

In the United Kingdom, a nationwide set of cybersecurity forums, known as the U. K Cyber Security Forum , were established supported by the Government’s cybersecurity strategy [] in order to encourage start-ups and innovation and to address the skills gap [] identified by the U.

K Government. The framework defines emerging cybersecurity roles in Operational Technology. It outlines the different OT cybersecurity job positions as well as the technical skills and core competencies necessary. It also depicts the many career paths available, including vertical and lateral advancement opportunities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Protection of computer systems from information disclosure, theft or damage. Phreaking Cryptovirology Hacking of consumer electronics List of hackers.

Hacker culture and ethic. Computer crime. Crimeware List of computer criminals Script kiddie. Hacking tools. Exploit forensics-focused operating systems Payload Social engineering Vulnerability.

Practice sites. HackThisSite Zone-H. Computer security. Application security Cloud computing security Network security. Main article: Vulnerability computing. Main article: Side-channel attack. Main article: Spoofing attack. See also: Medical device hijack and Medical data breach.

Main article: Secure by design. Main article: Vulnerability management. See also: Computer security compromised by hardware failure. Main article: Security-evaluated operating system.

Main article: Secure coding. Main articles: Access control list , Role-based access control , and Capability-based security. Further information: List of cyber-attacks and List of data breaches. Main article: Morris worm. Main article: Global surveillance disclosures —present. Main article: Ashley Madison Data Breach.

Main article: Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack. Main article: Computer emergency response team. This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. January Main article: Cyberwarfare.

Ross J. Denning Peter J. Neumann Susan Nycum Paul C. Stolfo Willis Ware Moti Yung. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law. ISSN Retrieved 12 July The Australian. Politics and Governance. S2CID Neumann, N. Statland and R. Webb Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 31 May April The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 February Lost to Hackers”. The New York Times.

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Retrieved 11 May SC Magazine UK. Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 4 July Consumer Information.

Retrieved 17 February Reversing: secrets of reverseengineering. ISBN Archived PDF from the original on 3 December Retrieved 16 April Financial Times. Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 7 May Associated Press.

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London: Springer. LCCN Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 4 August Retrieved 3 August Procedia Economics and Finance. Reimers, D. Retrieved 17 September South African Computer Journal. Emory Law Journal. SSRN Minnesota Law Review. CNN Money. Cable News Network. Archived from the original on 18 February Zellan, Aviation Security. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science, , pp. Archived from the original on 8 February Retrieved 19 March Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 21 November Archived from the original on 12 December Archived from the original on 19 March Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 15 June Cybersecurity Firms Are On It”.

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